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The mind is its own place, and in it self, Can make a heav’n of hell, a hell of heav’n

The mind is its own place, and in itself 
Can make a heav’n of hell, a hell of heav’n.

John Milton, Paradise Lost Book I (254)

Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven

Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven

John Milton, Paradise Lost Book I (263)


Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven is spoken by Satin in Book 1 of Paradise Lost, by John Milton.

Paradise Lost Book 1 – John Milton

OF Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit
Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal tast
Brought Death into the World, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat,

Sing, Heav’nly Muse, that on the secret top
Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire
That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed,
In the Beginning how the Heav’ns and Earth
Rose out of Chaos: Or if Sion Hill 10
Delight thee more, and Siloa’s Brook that flow’d
Fast by the Oracle of God; I thence
Invoke thy aid to my adventrous Song,
That with no middle flight intends to soar

Above th’ Aonian Mount, while it pursues
Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rhime.
And chiefly Thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer
Before all Temples th’ upright heart and pure,
Instruct me, for Thou know’st; Thou from the first
Wast present, and with mighty wings outspread 20
Dove-like satst brooding on the vast Abyss
And mad’st it pregnant: What in me is dark
Illumine, what is low raise and support;
That to the highth of this great Argument
I may assert th’ Eternal Providence,
And justifie the wayes of God to men.
Say first, for Heav’n hides nothing from thy view
Nor the deep Tract of Hell, say first what cause
Mov’d our Grand Parents in that happy State,
Favour’d of Heav’n so highly, to fall off 30
From their Creator, and transgress his Will
For one restraint, Lords of the World besides?
Who first seduc’d them to that fowl revolt?
Th’ infernal Serpent; he it was, whose guile
Stird up with Envy and Revenge, deceiv’d
The Mother of Mankinde, what time his Pride
Had cast him out from Heav’n, with all his Host
Of Rebel Angels, by whose aid aspiring
To set himself in Glory above his Peers,
He trusted to have equal’d the most High, 40
If he oppos’d, and with ambitious aim
Against the Throne and Monarchy of God
Rais’d impious War in Heav’n and Battel proud
With vain attempt. Him the Almighty Power
Hurld headlong flaming from th’ Ethereal Skie
With hideous ruine and combustion down

To bottomless perdition, there to dwell
In Adamantine Chains and penal Fire,
Who durst defie th’ Omnipotent to Arms.
Nine times the Space that measures Day and Night50
To mortal men, he with his horrid crew
Lay vanquisht, rowling in the fiery Gulfe
Confounded though immortal: But his doom
Reserv’d him to more wrath; for now the thought
Both of lost happiness and lasting pain
Torments him; round he throws his baleful eyes
That witness’d huge affliction and dismay
Mixt with obdurate pride and stedfast hate:
At once as far as Angels kenn he views
The dismal Situation waste and wilde, 60
A Dungeon horrible, on all sides round
As one great Furnace flam’d, yet from those flames
No light, but rather darkness visible
Serv’d only to discover sights of woe,
Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace
And rest can never dwell, hope never comes
That comes to all; but torture without end
Still urges, and a fiery Deluge, fed
With ever-burning Sulphur unconsum’d:
Such place Eternal Justice has prepar’d 70
For those rebellious, here their Prison ordain’d
In utter darkness, and their portion set
As far remov’d from God and light of Heav’n
As from the Center thrice to th’ utmost Pole.
O how unlike the place from whence they fell!
There the companions of his fall, o’rewhelm’d
With Floods and Whirlwinds of tempestuous fire,
He soon discerns, and weltring by his side

One next himself in power, and next in crime,
Long after known in Palestine, and nam’d 80
Bëëlzebub. To whom th’ Arch-Enemy,
And thence in Heav’n called Satan, with bold words
Breaking the horrid silence thus began.
If thou beest he; But O how fall’n! how chang’d
From him, who in the happy Realms of Light
Cloth’d with transcendent brightnes didst outshine
Myriads though bright: If he whom mutual league,
United thoughts and counsels, equal hope,
And hazard in the Glorious Enterprize,
Joynd with me once, now misery hath joynd 90
In equal ruin: into what Pit thou seest
From what highth fal’n, so much the stronger provd
He with his Thunder: and till then who knew
The force of those dire Arms? yet not for those
Nor what the Potent Victor in his rage
Can else inflict do I repent or change,
Though chang’d in outward lustre; that fixt mind
And high disdain, from sence of injur’d merit,
That with the mightiest rais’d me to contend,
And to the fierce contentions brought along 100
Innumerable force of Spirits arm’d
That durst dislike his reign, and, me preferring,
His utmost power with adverse power oppos’d
In dubious Battel on the Plains of Heav’n,
And shook his throne. What though the field be lost?
All is not lost; the unconquerable Will,
And study of revenge, immortal hate,
And courage never to submit or yield:
And what is else not to be overcome?
That Glory never shall his wrath or might 110
Extort from me. To bow and sue for grace
With suppliant knee, and deifie his power
Who from the terrour of this Arm so late
Doubted his Empire, that were low indeed,
That were an ignominy and shame beneath
This downfall; since by Fate the strength of Gods
And this Empyreal substance cannot fail,
Since through experience of this great event
In Arms not worse, in foresight much advanc’t,
We may with more successful hope resolve 120
To wage by force or guile eternal Warr
Irreconcileable, to our grand Foe,
Who now triumphs, and in th’excess of joy
Sole reigning holds the Tyranny of Heav’n
So spake th’Apostate Angel, though in pain,
Vaunting aloud, but rackt with deep despare:
And him thus answer’d soon his bold Compeer.
O Prince, O Chief of many Throned Powers,
That led th’ imbattelld Seraphim to Warr
Under thy conduct, and in dreadful deeds 130
Fearless, endanger’d Heav’ns perpetual King;
And put to proof his high Supremacy,
Whether upheld by strength, or Chance, or Fate,
Too well I see and rue the dire event,
That with sad overthrow and foul defeat
Hath lost us Heav’n, and all this mighty Host
In horrible destruction laid thus low,
As far as Gods and Heav’nly Essences
Can Perish: for the mind and spirit remains
Invincible, and vigour soon returns,
Though all our Glory extinct, and happy state 140
Here swallow’d up in endless misery.

But what if he our Conqueror, (whom I now
Of source believe Almighty, since no less
The such could hav orepow’rd such force as ours)
Have left us this our spirit and strngth intire
Strongly to suffer and support our pains,
That we may so suffice his vengeful ire,
Or do him mightier sevice as his thralls
By right of Warr, what e’re his business be 150
Her in the heart of Hell to work in Fire,
Or do his Errands in the gloomy Deep;
What can it then avail though yet we feel
Strength undiminisht, or eternal being
To undergo eternal punishment?
Whereto with speedy words th’ Arch-fiend reply’d.
Fall’n Cherube, to be weak is miserable
Doing or Suffering: but of this be sure,
To do ought good never will be our task,
But ever to do ill our sole delight, 160
As being the contrary to his high will
Whom we resist. If then his Providence
Out of our evil seek to bring forth good,
Our labour must be to pervert that end,
And out of good still to find means of evil;
Which oft times may succeed, so as perhaps
Shall grieve him, if I fail not, and disturb
His inmost counsels from their destind aim.
But see the angry Victor hath recall’d
His Ministers of vengeance and pursuit 170
Back to the Gates of Heav’n: The Sulphurous Hail
Shot after us in storm, oreblown hath laid
The fiery Surge, that from the Precipice
Of Heav’n reciev’d us falling, and the Thunder,

Wing’d with red Ligthning and impetuous rage,
Perhaps hath spent his shafts, and ceases now
To bellow through the vast and boundless Deep.
Let us not flip th’ occasion, whether scorn,
Or satiate fury yield it from our Foe.
Seest thou yon dreary Plain, forlorn and wilde, 180
The feat of desolation, voyd of light,
Save what the glimmering of these livid flames
Casts pale and dreadful? Thither let us tend
From off the tossing of these fiery waves,
There rest, if any rest can harbour there,
And reassembling our afflicted Powers,
Consult how we may henceforth most offend
Our Enemy, our own loss how repair,
How overcome this dire Calamity,
What reinforcement we may gain from Hope, 190
If not what resolution from despare.
Thus Satan talking to his neerest Mate
With head up-lift above the wave, and Eyes
That sparking blaz’d, his other Parts besides
Prone on the Flood, extended long and large
Lay floating many a rood, in bulk as huge
As whom the Fables name of monstrous size,
Titanian, or Earth-born, that warr’d on Jove,
Briarios or Typhon, whom the Den
By ancient Tarsus held, or that Sea-beast 200
Leviathan, which God of all his works
Create hugest that swim th’ Ocean stream:
Him haply slumbring on the Norway foam
The Pilot of some small night-founder’d Skiff
Deeming some Island, of, As Sea-men tell,
With fixed Anchor in his skaly rind

Moors by his side under the Lee, while Night
Invests the Sea, and wished Morn delayes:
So stretcht out huge in length the Arch-fiend lay
Chain’d on the burning Lake, nor ever thences 210
Had ris’n or heav’d his head, but that the will
and high permission of all-ruling Heaven
Left him at large to his own dark designs,
That with reiterated crimes he might
Heap on himself damnation, while he sought
Evil to others, and enrag’d might see
Hoe all his malice serv’d but to bring forth
Infinite goodness, grace and mercy shewn
On Man by him seduc’t but on hiself
Treble confusion, wrath and evngeance pour’d. 220
Forthwith upright he rears from off the Pool
His mighty Stature; on each hand the flames
Drivn backward slope their pointing spires,& rowld
In billows, leave i’th’ midst a horrid Vale.
The with expanded wings he stears his flight
Aloft, incumbent on the dusky Air
That felt unusual wight, till on dry Land
He lights, if it were Land that ever burn’d
With solid, as the Lake with liquid fire;
And such appear’d in hue, as when the force 230
of subterrenean wind transports a Hill
Torn from Peolorus, or th shatter’d side
of thundring Ætna, whose combustible
And fewel’d entrals thence conceiving Fire,
Sublim’d with Mineral fury, aid the Winds,
and leave a signed bottom all involv’d
With stench and smoak: Such resting found the sole
Of unblest feet. Him followed his next Mate,

Both glorying to have scap’t the Stygian flood 240
As Gods, and by their own recover’d strength,
Not by the sufferance of supernal Power.

Is this the Region, this the Soil, the Clime,
Said then the lost Arch Angel, this the seat
That we must change for Heav’n, this mournful gloom
For that celestial light? Be it so, since hee 
Who now is Sovran can dispose and bid
What shall be right : fardest from him is best
Whom reason hath equald, force hath made supream
Above his equals. Farewel happy Fields 250
Where Joy for ever dwells: Hail horrours, hail
Infernal world, and thou profoundest Hell
Receive thy new Possessor: One who brings
A mind not to be chang’d by Place or Time.
The mind is its own place, and in it self
Can make a Heav’n of Hell, a Hell of Heav’n.
What matter where, if I be still the same,
And what I should be, ail but less then hee
Whom Thunder hath ruade greater? Here at least
We shall be free; th’ Almighty bath not built 260
Here for his envy, will not drive us hence: 
Here we may reign secure, and in my choyce
To reign is worth ambition though in Hell:
Better to reign in Hell, then serve in Heav’n.
But wherefore let we then our faithful friend,
Th’ associate and copartners of our loss
Lye thus astonisht on th’ oblivious Pool,
And call them hot to share with us their part
In this unhappy Mansion , or once more
With rallied Arms to try what may be yet 270
Regaind in Heav’n, or what more lost in Hell?

So Satan spake, and him Bëëlzebub
Thus answer’d. Leader of those Armies bright,
Which but th’ Omnipotent none could have foyld,
If once they hear that voyce, their liveliest pledge
Of hope in fears and dangers, heard so oft
In worst extreams, and on the perilous edge
Of battel when it rag’d, in all assaults
Their surest signal, they will soon resume
New courage and revive, though now they lye 270
Groveling and prosate on yon Lake of Fire,
As we erewhile, astounded and amaz’d,
No wonder, fall’n such a pernicious highth.

He scarce had ceas’t when the superiour Fiend
Was moving toward the shore;his ponderous shield
Ethereal temper, massy, large and round,
Behind him cast; the broad circumference
Hung on sis shoulders like the Moon, whose Orb
Through Optic Glass the Tuscan Artist views
At Ev’ning from the top of Fesole, 290
Or in Valdarno, to descry new Lands,
Rivers or Mountains in her stpotty Globe.
His Spear, to equal which the tallest Pine
Hewn on Norwegian hills, to be the Mast
Of stome great Ammiral, were but a wand,
He walkt with to stupport uneastie steps
Over the burning Marie, not like thoste steps
On Heavens Azure, and the torrid Clime
Smote on him store bestides, vaulted with Fire ;
Nathlests he sto endur’d, till on the Beach 300
Of that inflamed Sea, he stood and call’d
His Legions, Angel Forms, who lay intrans’t
Thick as Autumnal Leaves that strow the Brooks

In Vallombrosa, where th’ Etrurian shades
High overarch’t imbowr; or scatterd sedge
Afloat, when with fierce Winds Orion arm’d
Hath vext the Red-Sea Coast, whose waves ore-threw
Busiris and his Memphian Chivalrie, 
While with perfidious hatred they pursu’d
The Sojourners of Goshen, who beheld 310
From the safe shore their floating Carkases
And broken Chariot VVheels, so thick bestrown
Abject and lost lay these, covering the Flood,
Under amazement of their hideous change.
He call’d so loud, that all the hollow Deep
Of Hell resounded. Princes, Potentates,
Warriers,the Flowr of Heav’n,once yours,now lost,
If such astonishment as this can sieze
Eternal spirit ; or have ye chos’n this place
After the toyl of Battel to repose 320
Your wearied vertue, for the ease you find
To slumber here, as in the Vales of Heav’n?
Or in this abject posture have ye sworn
To adore the Conquerour? who now beholds
Cherube and Seraph rowling in the Flood
With scatter’d Arms and Ensigns, till anon
His swift pursuers from Heav’n Gates discern
Th’ advantage, and descending tread us down
Thus drooping, or with linked Thunderbolts
Transfix us to the bottom of this Gulfe. 330
Awake, arise, or be for ever fall’n.

They heard, and were abasht, and up they sprung
Upon the wing, as when men wont to watch
On duty, sleeping found by whom they dread,
Rouse and bestir themselves ere well awake.

Nor did they not perceave the evil plight 
In which they were, or the fierce pains not feel; 
Yet to their Generals Voyce they soon obeyd 
Innumerable. As when the potent Rod 
Of Amrams Son in Egypts evill day 340
Wav’d round the Coast, up call’d a pitchy cloud 
Of Locusts, warping on the Eastern Wind, 
That ore the Realm of impious Pharaoh hung 
Like Night, and darken’d all the Land of Nile:
So numberless were those bad Angels seen 
Hovering on wing under the Cope of Hell 
‘Twixt upper, nether, and surrounding Fires; 
Till, as a signal giv’n, th’ uplifted Spear 
Of their great Sultan waving to direct 
Their course, in even ballance down they light 350
On the firm brimstone, and fill all the Plain; 
A multitude, like which the populous North 
Pour’d never from her frozen loyns, to pass 
Rhene or the Danaw, when her barbarous Sons 
Came like a Deluge on the South, and spread 
Beneath Gibraltar to the Lybian sands. 
Forthwith from every Squadron and each Band 
The Heads and Leaders thither hast where stood 
Their great Commander; Godlike shapes and sorms 
Exeelling human, Princely Dignities, 360
And Powers that earst in Heaven sat on Thrones;  
Though of their Names in heavenly Records now 
Be no memorial, blotted out and ras’d 
By thir Rebellion, from the Books of Life. 
Nor had they yet among the Sons of Eve 
Got them new Names, till wandring ore the Earth, 
Through Gods high sufferance for the tryal of man,

By falsities and lyes the greatest part 
Of Mankind they corrupted to forsake 
God their Creator, and th’ invisible 370
Glory of him, that made them, to transform 
Oft to the Image of a Brute, adorn’d 
With gay Religions full of Pomp and Gold, 
And Devils to adore for Deities: 
Then were they known to men by various Names, 
And various Idols through the Heathen World. 
Say, Muse, their Names then known, who first, who last, 
Rous’d from the slumber, on that fiery Couch, 
At their great Emperors call, as next in worth 
Came singly where he stood on the bare strand, 380
While the promiscuous croud stood yet aloof? 
The chief were those who from the Pit of Hell 
Roaming to seek their prey on earth, durst fix 
Their Seats long after next the Seat of God, 
Their Altars by his Altar, Gods ador’d 
Among the Nations round, and durst abide 
Jehovah thundring out of Sion, thron’d 
Between the Cherubim; yea, often plac’d 
Within his Sanctuary it self their Shrines, 
Abominations; and with cursed things 390
His holy Rites and solemn Feasts profan’d, 
And with their darkness durst affront his light. 
First Moloch, horrid King besmear’d with blood 
Of human sacrifice, and parents tears, 
Though for the noyse of Drums and Timbrels loud 
Their childrens cries unheard, that past through fire 
To his grim Idol. Him the Ammonite 
Worshipt in Rabba and her watry Plain, 
In Argob and in Basan, to the stream

Of utmost Arnon. Nor content with such 400
Audacious neighbourhood, the wisest heart 
Of Solomon he led by fraud to build 
His Temple right against the Temple of God 
On that opprobrious Hill, and made his Grove 
The pleasant Vally of HinnomTophet thence 
And black Gehenna call’d, the Type of Hell. 
Next Chemos, th’ ob’cene dread of Moabs Sons, 
From Aroer to Nebo, and the wild 
Of Southmo’t Abarim; in Hesebon 
And HeronaimSeons Realm, beyond 410
The flowry Dale of Sibma clad with Vines, 
And Eleale to th’ Asphaltick Pool. 
Peor his other Name, when he entic’d 
Israel in Sittim on their march from Nile 
To do him wanton rites, which cost them woe. 
Yet thence his lustful Orgies he enlarg’d 
Even to that Hill of scandal, by the Grove 
Of Moloch homicide, lust hard by hate; 
Till good Josiah drove them thence to Hell. 
With these came they, who from the bordring flood 420
Of old Euphrates to the Brook that parts 
Egypt from Syrian ground, had general Names 
Of Baalim and Ashtaroth, those male, 
These Feminine. For Spirits when they please 
Can either Sex assume, or both; so soft 
And uncompounded is their Essence pure, 
Not ti’d or manacl’d with joynt or limb, 
Nor founded on the brittle strength of bones, 
Like cumbrous flesh; but in what shape they choose 
Dilated or condens’t, bright or obscure, 430
Can execute their aerie purposes,

And works of love or enmity fulfil. 
For those the Race of Israel oft forsook 
Their living strength, and unfrequented left 
His righteous Altar, bowing lowly down 
To bestial Gods; for which their heads as low 
Bow’d down in Battel, sunk before the Spear 
Of despicable foes. With these in troop 
Came Astoreth, whom the Phœnicians called 
Astarte, Queen of Heav’n, with crescent Horns; 440
To whose bright Image nightly by the Moon 
Sidonian Virgins paid their Vows and Songs; 
In Sion also not unsung, where stood 
Her Temple on th’ offensive Mountain, built 
By that uxorious King, whose heart though large, 
Beguil’d by fair Idolatresses, fell 
To Idols foul. Thammuz came next behind, 
Whose annual wound in Lebanon allur’d 
The Syrian Damsels to lament his fate 
In amorous dittyes all a Summers day, 450
While smooth Adonis from his native Rock 
Ran purple to the Sea, suppos’d with blood 
Of Thammuz yearly wounded: the Love-tale 
Infected Sions daughters with like heat, 
Whose wanton passions in the sacred Porch 
Ezekiel saw, when by the Vision led 
His eye survay’d the dark Idolatries 
Of alienated Judah. Next came one 
Who mourn’d in earnest, when the Captive Ark 
Maim’d his brute Image, head and hands lopt off, 460
In his own Temple, on the grunsel edge, 
Where he fell flat, and sham’d his Worshipers: 
Dagon his Name, Sea Monster, upward Man

And downward Fish: yet had his Temple high 
Rear’d in Azotus, dreaded through the Coast 
Of Palestine, in Gath and Ascalon
And Accaron and Gaza’s frontier bounds. 
Him follow’d Rimmon, whose delightful Seat 
Was fair Damascus, on the fertil Banks 
Of Abbana and Pharphar, lucid streams. 470
He also against the house of God was bold: 
A Leper once he lost and gain’d a King, 
Ahaz his sottish Conquerour, whom he drew 
Gods Altar to disparage and displace 
For one of Syrian mode, whereon to burn 
His odious offrings, and adore the Gods 
Whom he had vanquisht. After these appear’d 
A crew who under Names of old Renown, 
OsirisIsisOrus, and their Train 
With monstrous shapes and sorceries abus’d 480
Fanatic Egypt and her Priessts, to seek 
Thir wandring Gods disguis’d in brutish forms 
Rather than human. Nor did Israel scape 
Th’ infection when their borrow’d Gold compos’d 
The Calf in Oreb: and the Rebel King 
Doubl’d that sin in Bethel and in Dan
Lik’ning his Maker to the Grazed Ox, 
Jehovah, who in one Night when he pass’d 
From Egypt marching, equal’d with one stroke 
Both her first born and all her bleating Gods. 490
Belial came last, then whom a Spirit more lewd 
Fell not from Heaven, or more gross to love 
Vice for it self: To him no Temple stood 
Or Altar smoak’d; yet who more oft than hee 
In Temples and at Altars, when the Priest

Turns Atheist, as did Ely’s sons, who fill’d 
With lust and violence the house of God. 
In Courts and Palaces he also Reigns 
And in luxurious Cities, where the noyse 
Of riot ascends above thir loftiest Towrs, 
And injury and outrage: And, when Night 500
Darkens the Streets, then wander forth the Sons 
Of Belial, flown with insolence and wine. 
Witness the Streets of Sodom, and that night 
In Gibeah, when the hospitable Dores 
Yielded thir Matrons to prevent worse rape. 
These were the prime in order and in might; 
The rest were long to tell, though far renown’d, 
Th’ Ionian Gods, of Javans Issue held 
Gods, yet confest later than Heav’n and Earth 510
Thir boasted Parents; Titan, Heav’ns first born 
With his enormous brood, and birthright seis’d 
By younger Saturn, he from mightier Jove 
His own and Rhea’s Son like measure found; 
So Jove usurping reign’d: these first in Creet 
And Ida known, thence on the Snowy top 
Of cold Olympus’ rul’d the middle Air 
Thir highest Heav’n; or on the Delphian Cliff, 
Or in Dodona, and through all the bounds 
Of Doric Land; or who with Saturn old 520
Fled over Adria to th’ Hesperian Fields, 
And ore the Celtic roam’d the utmost Isles. 
All these and more came flocking; but with looks 
Down cast and damp, yet such wherein appear’d 
Obscure som glimps of joy, to have found thir chief 
Not in despair, to have found themselves not lost 
In loss it self; which on his count’nance cast

Like doubtful hue: but he his wonted pride 
Soon recollecting, with high words, that bore 
Semblance of worth not substance, gently rais’d 530
Their fainted courage, and dispel’d their fears. 
Then strait commands that at the warlike sound 
Of Trumpets loud and Clarions be upreard 
His mighty Standard; that proud honour claim’d 
Azazel as his right, a Cherube tall: 
Who forthwith from the glittering Staff unfurld 
Th’ Imperial Ensign, which full high advanc’t 
Shon like a Meteor streaming to the Wind 
With Gemms and Golden lustre rich imblaz’d, 
Seraphic arms and Trophies: all the while 540
Sonorous mettal blowing Martial sounds: 
At which the universal Host upsent 
A shout that tore Hells Concave, and beyond 
Frighted the Reign of Chaos and old Night. 
All in a moment through the gloom were seen 
Ten thousand Banners rise into the Air 
With Orient Colours waving: with them rose 
A Forrest huge of Spears: and thronging Helms 
Appear’d, and serried Shields in thick array 
Of depth immeasurable: Anon they move 550
In perfect Phalanx to the Dorian mood 
Of Flutes and soft Recorders; such as rais’d 
To highth of noblest temper Hero’s old 
Arming to Battel, and in stead of rage 
Deliberate valour breath’d, firm and unmov’d 
With dread of death to flight or foul retreat, 
Nor wanting power to mitigate and swage 
With solemn touches, troubl’d thoughts, and chase 
Anguish and doubt and fear and sorrow and pain

From mortal or immortal minds. Thus they 560
Breathing united force with fixed thought 
Mov’d on in silence to soft Pipes that charm’d 
Thir painful steps o’ere the burnt soyle; and now 
Advanc’t in view they stand, a horrid Front 
Of dreadful length and dazzling Arms, in guise 
Of Warriors old with order’d Spear and Shield, 
Awaiting what command thir mighty Chief 
Had to impose: He through the armed Files 
Darts his experienc’t eye, and soon traverse 
The whole Battalion views, thir order due, 570
Thir visages and stature as of Gods, 
Thir number last he summs. And now his heart 
Distends with pride, and, hardning in his strength 
Glories: For never since created man, 
Met such imbodied force, as nam’d with these 
Could merit more than that small infantry 
Warr’d on by Cranes: though all the Giant brood 
Of Phlegra with th’ Heroic Race were joyn’d 
That fought at Theb’s and Ilium, on each side 
Mixt with auxiliar Gods; and what resounds 580
In Fable or Romance of Uthers Son 
Begirt with British and Armoric Knights; 
And all who since, Baptiz’d or Infidel 
Jousted in Aspramont or Montalban
Damasco, or Marocco, or Trebisond
Or whom Biserta sent from Afric shore 
When Charlemain with all his Peerage fell 
By Fontarabbia. Thus far these beyond 
Compare of mortal prowess, yet observ’d 
Thir dread Commander: he above the rest 590
In shape and gesture proudly eminent

Stood like a Towr; His form had yet not lost 
All her Original brightness, nor appear’d 
Less than Arch Angel ruined, and th’ excess 
Of Glory obscur’d: As when the Sun new ris’n 
Looks through the Horizontal misty Air 
Shorn of his Beams, or from behind the Moon 
In dim Eclips disastrous twilight sheds 
On half the Nations, and with fear of change 
Perplexes Monarchs. Dark’n’d so, yet shon 600
Above them all th’ Arch Angel: but his face 
Deep scars of Thunder had intrencht, and care 
Sat on his faded cheek, but under Browes 
Of dauntless courage, and considerate Pride 
Waiting revenge: cruel his eye, but cast 
Signs of remorse and passion to behold 
The fellows of his crime, the followers rather 
(Far other once beheld in bliss), condemn’d 
For ever now to have their lot in pain, 
Millions of Spirits for his fault amerc’t 610
Of Heav’n, and from Eternal Splendors flung 
For his revolt, yet faithfull how they stood, 
Thir Glory witherd. As when Heavens Fire 
Hath scath’d the Forrest Oaks, or Mountain Pines, 
With singed top their stately growth though bare 
Stands on the blasted Heath. He now prepar’d 
To speak; whereat their doubl’d Ranks they bend 
From Wing to Wing, and half enclose him round 
With all his Peers: attention held them mute. 
Thrice he assayed, and thrice in spite of scorn, 620
Tears such as Angels weep, burst forth: at last 
Words interwove with sighs found out their way. 

O Myriads of immortal Spirits, O Powers

Matchless, but with th’ Almighthy, and that strife 
Was not inglorious, though th’ event was dire, 
As this place testifies, and this dire change 
Hateful to utter: but what power of mind 
Foreseeing or presaging, from the Depth 
Of knowledge past or present, could have fear’d, 
How such united force of Gods, how such 
630As stood like these, could ever know repulse? 
For who can yet beleeve, though after loss, 
That all these puissant Legions, whose exile 
Hath emptied Heav’n, shall faile to re-ascend 
Self-rais’d, and repossess their native seat. 
For me, be witness all the Host of Heav’n, 
If counsels different, or danger shun’d 
By me, have lost our hopes. But he who reigns 
Monarch in Heav’n, till then as one secure 
Sat on his Throne, upheld by old repute, 640
Consent or custome, and his Regal State 
Put forth at full, but still his strength conceal’d, 
Which tempted our attempt, and wrought our fall. 
Henceforth his might we know, and know our own 
So as not either to provoke, or dread 
New warr, provok’t; our better part remains 
To work in close design, by fraud or guile, 
What force effected not: that he no less 
At length from us may find, who overcomes 
By force, hath overcome but half his foe. 650
Space may produce new Worlds; whereof so rife 
There went a fame in Heav’n that he ere long 
Intended to create, and therein plant 
A generation, whom his choice regard 
Should favour equal to the Sons of Heaven:

Thither, if but to prie, shall be perhaps
Our first eruption, thither or elsewhere:
For this Infernal Pit shall never hold
Cælestial Spirits in Bondage, nor th’ Abysse
Long under darkness cover. But these thoughts 660
Full Counsel must mature: Peace is despaird,
For who can think Submission? Warr then, Warr
Open or understood must be resolv’d.

He spake: and, to confirm his words, out-flew
Millions of flaming swords, drawn from the thighs
Of mighty Cherubim; the ‘udden blaze
Far round illumin’d hell: highly they rag’d
Against the Highest, and fierce with grasped arm’s
Clash’d on their sounding shields the din of war,
Hurling defiance toward the vault of Heav’n. 670

There stood a Hill not far whose griesly top
Belch’d fire and rolling smoak; the rest entire
Shon with a glossie scurff, undoubted sign
That in his womb was hid metallic Ore,
The work of Sulphur. Thither wing’d with speed
A numerous Brigad hasten’d As when bands
Of Pioners with Spade and Pickaxe arm’d
Forerun the Royal Camp, to trench a Field,
Or cast a Rampart. Mammon led them on,
Mammon, the least erected Spirit that fell 680
From heav’n, for ev’n in heav’n his looks & thoughts
Were always downward bent, admiring more
The riches of Heav’ns pavement, trod’n Gold,
Than aught divine or holy else enjoy’d
In vision beatific: by him first
Men also, and by his suggestion taught,
Ransack’d the Center, and with impious hands

Rifl’d the bowels of thir mother Earth
For Treasures better hid. Soon had his crew
Op’nd into the Hill a spacious wound 690
And dig’d out ribs of Gold. Let none admire
That riches grow in Hell; that soyle may best
Deserve the pretious bane. And here let those
Who boast in mortal things, and wondring tell
Of Babel, and the works of Memphian Kings,
Learn how their greatest Monuments of Fame,
And Strength and Art, are easily outdone
By Spirits reprobate, and in an hour
What in an age they with incessant toyle
And hands innumerable scarce perform. 700
Nigh on the Plain in many cells prepar’d,
That underneath had veins of liquid fire
Sluc’d from the Lake, a second multitude
With wondrous Art founded the massie Ore,
Severing each kinde, and scum’d the Bullion dross:
A third as soon had form’d within the ground
A various mould, and from the boyling cells
By strange conveyance fill’d each hollow nook,
As in an Organ from one blast of wind
To many a row of Pipes the sound-board breaths. 710
A non out of the earth a Fabrick huge
Rose like an Exhalation, with the sound
Of Dulcet Symphonies and voices sweet,
Built like a Temple, where Pilasters round
Were set, and Doric pillars overlaid
With Golden Architrave; nor did there want
Cornice or Freeze, with bossy Sculptures grav’n,
The Roof was fretted Gold. Not Babilon,
Nor great Alcairo such magnificence

Equal’d in all thir glories, to inshrine 720
Belus or Serapis thir Gods, or seat
Thir Kings, when Ægypt with Assyria strove
In wealth and luxurie. Th’ ascending pile
Stood fixt her stately highth, and strait the dores
Op’ning thir brazen foulds discover wide
Within, her ample spaces, o’re the smooth
And level pavement: from the arched roof
Pendent by suttle Magic many a row
Of Starry Lamps and blazing Cressets fed
With Naphtha and Asphaltus yeilded light 730
As from a sky. The hasty multitude
Admiring enter’d, and the work some praise
And some the Architect: his hand was known
In Heav’n by many a Towred structure high,
Where Scepter’d Angels held their residence,
And sat as Princes, whom the supreme King
Exalted to such power, and gave to rule,
Each in his Herarchie, the Orders bright.
Nor was his name unheard or unador’d
In ancient Greece; and in Ausonian land 740
Men call’d him Mulciber; and how he fell
From Heav’n, they fabl’d, thrown by angry Jove
Sheer o’re the Chrystal Battlements: from Morn
To Noon he fell, from Noon to dewy Eve,
A Summers day; and with the setting Sun
Dropt from the Zenith like a falling Star,
On Lemnos th’ Ægæan Ile: thus they relate,
Erring; for he with this rebellious rout
Fell long before; nor aught avail’d him now
To have built in Heav’n high Towrs; nor did he scape 750
By all his Engins, but was headlong sent

With his industrious crew, to build in hell.
Mean while the winged Haralds by command
Of Sovran power, with awful Ceremony
And Trumpets sound throughout the Host proclaim
A solemn Councel forthwith to be held
At Pandæmonium, the high Capital
Of Satan and his Peers: thir summons call’d
From every and Band squared Regiment
By place or choice the worthiest; they anon 760
With hundreds and with thousands trooping came
Attended: all access was throng’d, the Gates
And Porches wide, but chief the spacious Hall
(Though like a cover’d field, where Champions bold
Wont ride in arm’d, and at the Soldans chair
Defi’d the best of Panim chivalry
To mortal combat or carreer with Lance)
Thick swarm’d, both on the ground and in the air,
Brusht with the hiss of russling wings. As Bees
In spring time, when the Sun with Taurus rides, 770
Poure forth thir populous youth about the Hive
In clusters; they among fresh dews and flowers
Flie to and fro, or on the smoothed Plank,
The suburb of thir Straw-built Cittadel,
New rub’d with Baume, expatiate, and confer
Their State affairs. So thick the aerie crowd
Swarm’d and were straitn’d; till the Signal giv’n,
Behold a wonder! they but now who seemed
In bigness to surpass Earths Giant Sons
Now less than smallest Dwarfs, in narrow room 780
Throng numberless, like that Pigmean Race
Beyond the Indian Mount, or Faerie Elves,
Whose midnight Revels, by a Forrest side

Or Fountain some belated Peasant sees, 
Or dreams he sees, while over head the Moon 
Sits Arbitress, and neerer to the Earth 
Wheels her pale course, they on thir mirth & dance 
Intent, with jocond Music charm his ear; 
At once with joy and fear his heart rebounds. 
Thus incorporeal Spirits to smallest forms 790
Reduc’d their shapes immense, and were at large, 
Though without number still amidst the Hall 
Of that infernal Court. But far within 
And in thir own dimensions like themselves 
The great Seraphic Lords and Cherubim 
In close recess and secret conclave sat 
A thousand Demy-Gods on golden seat’s, 
Frequent and full. After short silence then 
And summons read, the great consult began.

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